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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Free radical measurements in life science and biomedical applications
Offline tool for very versatile contactless electrical characterization of semiconductor wafers or partially processed wafers....
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
is a modification of MDP, where temperature dependent measurements of the defect part of the transient are accomplished.
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
benchtop PID test solution
for fast and routine production level quality control of solar cells
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
for ultra-fast crystal orientation and rocking curve measurements
flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
for AT, SC, FC, IT cut Blanks
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
The microelectronic industry drives present global technological developments. It is one reason for the success of information...
Solar Energy is one of the key elements for the energy revolution that is currently taking place all over the world. In the last...
Research and development is the driving force for the expanding market for semiconductor products in the PV and microelectronic...
The impact of the development of the crystal growth methods on modern technology is often underestimated. We use products...
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A measuring technique for the orientation determination of crystals
In the EFG apparatuses for the orientation determination of single crystals, a special X-ray diffraction method is used. This method, developed by Prof. Bradaczek, has been called “Omega-Scan“.
The specimen is rotating at fixed measuring arrangement.
During one turn an X-ray diffraction diagram (= Omega-Scan diagram) is measured.
From the Omega-Scan diagram are calculated (e.g.): the inclination angle between one crystallographic axis (here: the a axis) and the reference plane as well as the direction of the inclination in this plane.
The specimen is turned by 360° around a certain axis, e.g., the surface normal. The X-ray source and the detector have to be adjusted depending on the crystal type to get a sufficient number of reflections per turn. The angular positions of these reflections are used to evaluate the orientation of the crystal lattice (completely described by three angles) with relation to the rotation axis. In order to relate the lattice orientation exactly to the surface of a crystal, the direction of the surface is checked by a laser beam. Also other relevant crystal reference faces or directions can be measured by optical tools in a similar way. This measuring technique enables to determine the orientation of arbitrary single crystals in any orientation range with high precision. Usually, a measuring time of some seconds (during one or a few turns of the specimen) is sufficient to get a reproducibility in the range of a few arc seconds. A special application of the Omega-Scan Method is the precision lattice-parameter determination, especially of cubic crystals.
Advantages of the Omega-Scan Method compared with other X-ray diffraction techniques are:
Stable and relative simple arrangement (X-ray tube and detector in fixed positions, only one measuring circle, no monochromator).
All the data necessary for the complete orientation determination are measured by one turn.
High precision at low measuring time.
From these reasons, the method is suited especially for serial measurements and industrial applications.