Choose another division
Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Free radical measurements in life science and biomedical applications
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
Microwave Detected Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
benchtop PID test for solar wafers and mini-modules
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
For ultra-fast crystal orientation and rocking curve measurements
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
The microelectronic industry drives present global technological developments. It is one reason for the success of information...
Solar Energy is one of the key elements for the energy revolution that is currently taking place all over the world. In the last...
Research and development is the driving force for the expanding market for semiconductor products in the PV and microelectronic...
The impact of the development of the crystal growth methods on modern technology is often underestimated. We use products...
Freiberg Instruments is one of the world's fast growing, young and dynamic analytical instrumentation companies
Technical support, Training, Warranty, Consultation, Seminars, Upgrades and more
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
going the extra mile
at Freiberg Instruments
The exact determination of the iron concentration is very important, since iron is one of the most abundant and also most detrimental defects in silicon. Hence it is necessary to measure the iron concentration as exactly and fast as possible, with a very high resolution and preferably inline.
With the MDPingot and MDPmap series it is possible to measure the iron concentration in bricks and wafers fully automated and with a very high resolution.
Lifetime measurements before and after iron boron pair dissociation is a widely used method for iron determination in silicon wafers. In boron doped silicon with a high doping concentration, as it is used for PV applications nearly 100 % of the electrical active iron is present as FeB pairs. With light of sufficient energy these pairs can be dissociated in Fei and B. This process is reversible and after some time all FeB pairs are associated again. FeB and Fei have different recombination properties, so that the dissociation has an effect on the measured lifetime. With this effect the iron concentration can be determined via:
For the iron determination a calibration factor C is used, which depends on the injection, doping concentration and trap concentration, which has to be considered especially in Multicrystalline silicon. With MDP a determination of the iron concentration is possible for mc- and mono-Si with a high resolution and thanks to simulations and years of research, also with a high accuracy.
For more information about the iron determination and the dependencies of the calibration factor read:
 S. Rein and S. W. Glunz, Journal of Applied Physics 98 (2005).
 N.Schüler, T.Hahn, K. Dornich, J.R. Niklas, Solid State phenomena to be published
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different preparation stages, without built-in automatization. Optional hand operated z-axis for thicker samples up to 156 mm bricks....