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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Free radical measurements in life science and biomedical applications
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
Microwave Detected Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
benchtop PID test for solar wafers and mini-modules
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
For ultra-fast crystal orientation and rocking curve measurements
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
The microelectronic industry drives present global technological developments. It is one reason for the success of information...
Solar Energy is one of the key elements for the energy revolution that is currently taking place all over the world. In the last...
Research and development is the driving force for the expanding market for semiconductor products in the PV and microelectronic...
The impact of the development of the crystal growth methods on modern technology is often underestimated. We use products...
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In the PV as well as the microelectronic industry there are a lot of applications, were thin epitaxial layers are used. Because of that it is necessary to control the quality of the epitaxial layers with contact less and non-destructive methods to determine the minority carrier lifetime.
With MDP it is possible to measure the lifetime of minority carriers and the photoconductivity in epitaxial layers as fast and exactly as possible with a high resolution.
The measurement of epitaxial layers and the determination of their quality is a huge challenge for lifetime measuring methods, since the signal intensity is very small and the results are very difficult to interpret due to the many recombination sites (fig. 1).
In the MDPmap and MDPingot equipment it is possible to integrate up to 4 lasers with different wavelength and hence different penetration depth. Furthermore it is possible to measure with different pulse length from a very short pulse of only 100 ns, where no carrier diffusion takes place to a pulse length of several ms, where the carriers diffuse into the sample depth. Hence by varying the laser wavelength and the pulse length, it is possible to measure with different penetration depth and deduce from the lifetime results, which recombination site is the most dominant one. Figure 2 shows an example where a sample series with different substrate qualities and epitaxial layer thicknesses were measured, demonstrating the dependence of the measured lifetime from the substrate, interface quality and surface quality.
For more information about the determination of lifetime of epitaxial layers read:
 D. Walter, P. Rosenits, F. Kopp, B. Berger, K. Dornich, W. Warta: “Determining the epitaxial carrier lifetime by microwave-detected photoconductance measurements”, Proc. Of the 25th EU PVSEC, submitted (2010)
 K. Dornich, T. Hahn, J.R. Niklas: “Non-destructive electrical characterization and topography of silicon wafers and epitaxial layers”, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 864, 549-554 (2005)