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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Free radical measurements in life science and biomedical applications
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
Microwave Detected Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
benchtop PID test for solar wafers and mini-modules
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
For ultra-fast crystal orientation and rocking curve measurements
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
The microelectronic industry drives present global technological developments. It is one reason for the success of information...
Solar Energy is one of the key elements for the energy revolution that is currently taking place all over the world. In the last...
Research and development is the driving force for the expanding market for semiconductor products in the PV and microelectronic...
The impact of the development of the crystal growth methods on modern technology is often underestimated. We use products...
Freiberg Instruments is one of the world's fast growing, young and dynamic analytical instrumentation companies
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Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
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at Freiberg Instruments
For measurements at thick samples like ingots, it is very important to simulate the carrier depth profile, that developes in the sample. The measured lifetime is strongly effected by this profile, so that this effect has to be taken into account.
The measurement of thick samples as bricks leads to new questions and problems. One of these questions is how the carrier profiles that develops in a sample effect the lifetime measurements. To solve this problem, we developed a simulation tool for the modelling of carrier profiles. This tool consists of a partial differential equation system of the transport equations for electrons and holes and the Poisson equation.
The simulations for measurements with a long (typical MDP condition) or a very short light pulse (typical µ-PCD conditions) at thick unpassivated samples are shown in figure 1 and 2. It becomes clear, that the carrier profile of a long light pulse expands through a large volume of the sample, where as the carrier profile of the only 200 ns long light pulse is very surface near. This has a direct effect on the measured lifetime, since the surface recombination has a much stronger effect on the µ-PCD measurements.
Figure 3 shows the quantitative effect of the surface recombination on the effective lifetime for both measurement conditions. The MDP measurements are less prone to the surface effect, so that MDP measurements are more suited for the investigation of bulk properties. Accordingly µ-PCD is an ideal method to investigate the surface properties of a sample.