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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Free radical measurements in life science and biomedical applications
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
Microwave Detected Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
benchtop PID test for solar wafers and mini-modules
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
For ultra-fast crystal orientation and rocking curve measurements
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
The microelectronic industry drives present global technological developments. It is one reason for the success of information...
Solar Energy is one of the key elements for the energy revolution that is currently taking place all over the world. In the last...
Research and development is the driving force for the expanding market for semiconductor products in the PV and microelectronic...
The impact of the development of the crystal growth methods on modern technology is often underestimated. We use products...
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The common XRD method for surface orientation determination is based on the Bragg equation:
2⋅d⋅sin ϑ = n⋅λ,
which describes the relation between X-ray wavelength λ, lattice plane distance d, and the reflection glance angle ϑ. n indicates the diffraction order of the reflection, usually 1.
The angle between X-ray beam and detector is set to the reflection condition for a certain lattice plane that is given by the Bragg equation. To find the reflection, both X-ray and detector are moved coupled and simultaneously the sample is rotated. The direction of the lattice plane perpendicular is then calculated from the position of the reflection peak. There is no specific name for this method, thus we call it the "Theta Scan".
Successful Theta Scans on at least two different lattice planes are needed to determine the complete crystal orientation. The reflections should be accessible to the diffractometer without moving the sample.
Advantages of this method are the relatively simple diffractometer alignment and its flexibility. The alignment can be calculated for each case using the Bragg equation, which is no problem as long as the material is known. There is virtually no limit to the measurable orientations. The possible resolution is only limited by the spectral width of the beam and the mechanical precision of the instrument. The disadvantages are the rather long measurement time (some minutes) and the problem of finding enough reflections.