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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
High Resolution Resistivity Mapping Tool for process control and quality assurance measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
The PID susceptibility depends on several parameters as the stress factors temperature and voltage as well as the encapsulation materials and the SiNx layer of the solar cell itself.
TemperatureHigher heating plate temperatures lead to faster degradation of the solar cells. Unfortunately by using temperatures above 60 °C the EVA foil will irreparable damage the solar cell by conglutination. On the other hand simulates this lamination the situation of the module best.
VoltageUsage of higher voltage is fastening the cell’s degradation. For fast degradation 1000 V are suggested, with 600 V differences between the cells are more finely graduated. It should be mentioned, that the voltage always is negative, so the PIDcon system is used for p-type cells.
Humidity The influence of the humidity on the degradation result is insignificant, since the glass and EVA are press onto the solar cell and a full area contact is ensured. But if the cell is PID-resistant, small changes of humidity may result in small observable changes in the measured parallel resistance, since the contact resistance between the gold pins and the solar cell changes.
LightLight has a huge impact on the PID measurement. It has to be ensured that the flap and the cover are closed during the measurement.Furthermore the positioning of strong light sources around the PIDcon device should be avoided.The diagram shows the influence on the resistance curve. For the first case the flap of the device was opened and closed, for the second one the cover was lifted to get a 5 mm gap to the ground plate and a strong illumination lamp was placed before the system and switched on and off.
Glass and EVAFrom literature it is known that modules with quartz glas or alkali poor glas are not sensitive to PID-s. As shown in figure 1 also borat glas is well suited for modules which are stable against PID-s. Not necessary the Na concentration, but the resistivity of the glass from side to side is key for the PID susceptibility.Different encapsulation foils seem to be well suited for PID-s resistant modules(e.g. polyvinylbutyral (PVB), Thermoplastic silicon-elastomer (TPSE), Polyethylene (PE)). Similar to the glass a high resistivity of the polymer foil seems to lead to a PID resistant behavior.
For more information please read: V. Naumann, Ursachenanalyse und physikalische Modellbildung für potenzial-induzierte Degradation von Silizium-Solarzellen, Dissertation, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg (2014)