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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
for production and quality control of monocrystalline Si ingots,bricks and wafers
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
High Resolution Resistivity Mapping Tool for process control and quality assurance measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
The determination of the chromium concentration is very important, since chromium is one of the most abundant and also most detrimental defects in silicon. Hence it is necessary to measure the chromium density as exactly and fast as possible. The MDPmap series can be equipped with a heated chuck with which it is possible to measure the chromium concentration in wafers fully automated and with a very high resolution.
Lifetime measurements before and after chromium boron pair dissociation is a widely used method for chromium determination in silicon wafers.
In boron doped silicon with a high doping concentration, as it is used for PV applications nearly 100 % of the electrical active chromium is present as CrB pairs. With light of sufficient energy these pairs can be dissociated in Cri and B. This process is reversible and after some time all CrB pairs are associated again, which takes much longer as for FeB pairs. CrB and Cri have different recombination properties, so that the dissociation has an effect on the measured lifetime. With this effect the chromium concentration can be determined via:
For the chromium determination a calibration factor C is used, which depends on the injection and doping concentration. With the MDPmap and the heated sample stage a determination of the chromium concentration is possible for mc- and mono-Si with a high resolution.