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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
for production and quality control of monocrystalline Si ingots,bricks and wafers
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
High Resolution Resistivity Mapping Tool for process control and quality assurance measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
The exact determination of the iron concentration is very important, since iron is one of the most abundant and also most detrimental defects in silicon. Hence it is necessary to measure the iron concentration as exactly and fast as possible, with a very high resolution and preferably inline.
With the MDPingot and MDPmap series it is possible to measure the iron concentration in bricks and wafers fully automated and with a very high resolution.
Lifetime measurements before and after iron boron pair dissociation is a widely used method for iron determination in silicon wafers. In boron doped silicon with a high doping concentration, as it is used for PV applications nearly 100 % of the electrical active iron is present as FeB pairs. With light of sufficient energy these pairs can be dissociated in Fei and B. This process is reversible and after some time all FeB pairs are associated again. FeB and Fei have different recombination properties, so that the dissociation has an effect on the measured lifetime. With this effect the iron concentration can be determined via:
For the iron determination a calibration factor C is used, which depends on the injection, doping concentration and trap concentration, which has to be considered especially in Multicrystalline silicon. With MDP a determination of the iron concentration is possible for mc- and mono-Si with a high resolution and thanks to simulations and years of research, also with a high accuracy.
For more information about the iron determination and the dependencies of the calibration factor read:
 S. Rein and S. W. Glunz, Journal of Applied Physics 98 (2005).
 N.Schüler, T.Hahn, K. Dornich, J.R. Niklas, Solid State phenomena to be published
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different preparation stages, without built-in automatization. Optional hand operated z-axis for thicker samples up to 156 mm bricks....