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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
Microwave Detected Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
For ultra-fast crystal orientation and rocking curve measurements
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) is a primarily in the photovoltaic sector well established method for the spatial resolved measurement of recombination active defects in ready-progressed solar cells.
The proceeding is based on the measurement of the local short circuit current Isc in the cell, which is produced through appropriate excitation. For the measurement the solar cell is contacted and locally irradiated with laser light. Advantages are the simple buildup and the high resolution, disadvantage is the exigency of contacting the sample, for which reason only ready-progressed cells can be examined. Predictions about lifetime, mobility or defect details are possible.
From the measured short circuit current the external quantum efficiency can be determined via:
where P is the laser power and l the wavelength. The external quantum efficiency depends on the properties of the cell volume but also on the reflection properties of the surface. If the reflection can be neglected the following mechanism determines the EQE:
recombination of minority carriers in the volume
recombination of minority carriers at the surfaces at the front and the back
shunts in the solar cell
The internal quantum efficiency IQE includes the reflection of the light at the surface:
In order to determine the diffusion length, it is necessary to measure IQE for at least 4 different wavelengths, which should differ in the penetration depth. The slope of 1/IQE vs. 1/a is the reciprocal of the effective diffusion length.