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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
Microwave Detected Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
For ultra-fast crystal orientation and rocking curve measurements
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
The resistivity is one of the most important electrical parameters of a material. It is a key parameter for the performance of semiconductor devices as e.g. solar cells and depends on the doping density of the material. Hence, it is necessary to measure the resistivity with a high accuracy and a high resolution, in order to detect inhomogeneity in the doping density.
With MDPmap and MDPingot it is possible to measure the resistivity of wafers or bricks with a high accuracy and a resolution of 1 mm via eddy current measurements. The Eddy current sensor setup has a very good long-term stability, due to a distance correlated internal calibration matrix. Hence, with every resistivity map a geometry map of the surface flatness is measured. The resistivity can be measured simultaneously with the minority carrier lifetime and photoconductivity maps. In case of wafer measurements, the thickness of the sample has to be given by the user.
Step width ≥ 1mm
Edge exclusion 12 mm
Resistivity wafer thickness range 150 ...250 µm
Resistivity range can be specified
Default setting: 0.5 to 5 Ohm cm
Accuracy: < 5 %
Repeatability: < 1 % (range of 0.5 until 3 Ohm cm)
It is possible to map the sheet resistance of the emitter, in order to investigate the homogeneity of the emitter diffusion. The resistivity of the base has to be given by the user.
Sheet resistance measurement with range 0.1-200 Ohm/sq
Accuracy at standard sample size,
0.1 - 10 Ohm/sq: < 3 % accuracy
10 - 100 Ohm/sq: < 4 % accuracy
100 – 200 Ohm/sq: < 5 % accuracy
Figure 1 to 3 show examples of resistivity maps measured on mc-Si wafers and bricks.
Freiberg Instruments is currently improving sheet resistance measurements and adapting its devices for measurements of thin layers and stacks of wide-bandgap materials.