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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
High Resolution Resistivity Mapping Tool for process control and quality assurance measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
Many lifetime measuring methods as QSSPC, µPCD or CDI, as well as MDP suffer from an anomalous high measured lifetime at very low injections. This effect is due to trapping centers in the sample. These trapping centers are very important, in order to understand the behavior of carriers in the material and can also have an effect on solar cells. Hence it is desirable to measure the trap density and the activation energy of these trap centers with a high resolution.
With the MDPmap and MDPingot it is possible to measure the photoconductivity as well as the minority carrier lifetime with one measurement and fully automated in a wide injection range. A clever algorithm allows the determination of the trap concentration in the sample.
From the injection dependent lifetime curve the lifetime at low injection τLLI can be determined and the photoconductivity is fitted with the slightly modified model of HORNBECK and HAYNES. The trapping density NT and the activation energy EA are the fitting parameters.
First measurement results were obtained on mc- and Cz-Si wafers and a correlation between the trap density and the dislocation density could be confirmed.
MDPmap allows to measure injection dependent photoconductivity and lifetime curves with a high resolution, so that the trap density and activation energy of trapping centers can be determined. With this it is possible to investigate the origin of traps and there influence on for example the efficiency of solar cells.
For more information read: J. A. Hornbeck and J. R. Haynes, Physical Review 97, 311-321 (1955) D. Macdonald and A. Cuevas, Applied Physics Letters 74, 1710 - 1712 (1999) N. Schüler, T. Hahn, K. Dornich, J.R. Niklas, 25th PVSEC Valencia (2010) 343-346
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different preparation stages, without built-in automatization. Optional hand operated z-axis for thicker samples up to 156 mm bricks....