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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
Among carrier lifetime experiments, it is still one of the biggest problems to understand widely contradicting results as obtained by different experimental methods. With our novel simulation tool it is possible to simulate steady state and non steady state measurements for any given material leading to a quantitative interpretation of the results.
Besides MDP the two most important contact less lifetime measuring methods are QSSPC (quasi steady state photoconductivity) and µ-PCD (microwave detected photoconductive decay). Currently one of the biggest problems in the photovoltaic industry is to make the deviating lifetime measurement results of the different methods comparable. With our novel simulation tool it is possible to simulate steady state and non steady state measurements, so that a comparison is possible.
The µ-PCD method typically operates at very high injections with a very short light pulse of only 200 ns. The minority carrier lifetime is determined via the photoconductive decay, similar to MDP. µ-PCD detects the photoconductivity by measuring the reflection of a microwave at the sample, which makes this method less sensitive than MDP.
QSSPC detects the changes in permeability of the sample and therefore the conductance via the coupling of the sample by a coil to a radio-frequency bridge. The exciting light is tuned down slowly, so that the sample is always in a quasi steady state. A further difference to MDP is the use of a flash-light with a hole light spectrum, in stead of monochrome laser light as the excitation source.
Figure 1 displays the injection ranges in which the different lifetime measuring methods typically operate. It becomes clear that MDP surpasses the other methods, because it enables to measure over 7 decades of injection.
If the measurement results of these different methods are compared, the injection, excitation wavelength, penetration depth of the microwave, the carrier profile and the different behaviour of traps, that depends on the duration of the light pulse, has to be taken into consideration.
For more details read:
 T. Hahn, Thesis, TU Bergakademie, 2009