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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
The minority carrier lifetime is one of the most important and significant material parameters. It is extremely sensitive to smallest amounts of impurities or intrinsic defects and hence an ideal parameter for inline characterization of material quality and process control.
The minority carrier lifetime is one of the most important and significant material parameters. It is extremely sensitive to smallest amounts of impurities or intrinsic defects and hence an ideal parameter for inline characterization of material quality and process control. It is of essential importance for the performance of many semiconductor devices. The minority carrier lifetime is defined as the average time it takes an excess minority carrier to recombine. It is strongly dependent on the magnitude and type of recombination processes in the semiconductor.
The main different types of recombination are:
SRH recombination ⇒ via defects
Auger recombination ⇒ via a three particle process
intrinsic or radiative recombination ⇒ via band to band
For silicon SRH is often the dominant recombination mechanism. The minority carrier lifetime in the bulk depends accordingly on the number of defects present and on their recombination properties. In silicon the lifetime can be as high as 1ms, where as in a direct semiconductor as GaAs, where the intrinsic recombination is dominant, the lifetime is only in the range of ns...µs. Besides the defect properties the minority carrier lifetime is dependent on the injection level (excess carrier concentration) and the doping concentration. Figure 1 and 2 display this dependencies for all different lifetimes.
The measured effective lifetime is composed of the bulk lifetime and surface lifetime, which depends on the surface properties of a sample. Hence the surface has to be passivated, if you want to measure the bulk properties of your sample. If you want to investigate the surface passivation quality a FZ-Si wafer is recommendable, because the bulk recombination can be neglected.
Besides that the measured effective lifetime is dependent on the measuring method. For more details read:
 S. Rein, Lifetime Spectroscopy - A Method of Defect Characterization in Silicon for Photovoltaic Applications, Vol. 85 (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2005)
 D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, 2 ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998)