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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
The electrical resistivity directly depends on the density of the semiconductor and is therefore a useful parameter to monitor doping profiles and homogeneity. The lifetime and diffusion length depend on the doping density as well. Since doping shifts the fermi level, it increases the rate of SRH recombination in most cases. In addition, since Auger recombination is more likely in heavily doped material, the recombination process itself is enhanced as the doping increases.
In our systems the resistivity is measured via the non-contact eddy current method. Eddy current is caused when a sample is exposed to a changing magnetic field due to variations of the field with time, for example if an AC current flows in a coil in close proximity to the sample. This causes a current within the bulk of the sample and the circulating eddies of current create induced magnetic fields that oppose the change of the original magnetic field. The greater the electrical conductivity of the sample , the greater are the currents that are developed and the greater the opposing field will be. In other words the electrical loss in the material is measured, which is directly related to the resistivity of the sample.
Note that the measurement depends also on the distance from the coil to the sample and therefore on geometrical features of the sample.
The resistivity is one of the most important electrical parameters of a material. It is a key parameter for the performance of semiconductor devices as e.g. solar cells and depends on the doping density of the material. Hence, it is necessary to measure the resistivity with a high accuracy and a high resolution, in order to detect inhomogeneity in the doping density.