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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
for production and quality control of monocrystalline Si ingots,bricks and wafers
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
High Resolution Resistivity Mapping Tool for process control and quality assurance measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
The advanced method MDP is suited for defect investigation and mapping of wafers and ingotsWith its extraordinary sensitivity, resolution and speed MDP enables injection dependent measurements as well as mapping with a very high resolution.
The novel method MDP is well suited for both, defect investigation by e.g. injection dependent minority carrier lifetime measurements, as well as mapping of wafers or even bricks for inline metrology. It exceeds his competitors µPCD (microwave detected photoconductivity decay) and QSSPC (quasi steady state photo conductance) in terms of sensitivity, resolution and speed.
The photoconductivity, which is closely related to the diffusion length is measured by microwave absorption during and after the excitation with a rectangular laser pulse. Figure 1 displays the measurement principle for MDP and MD-PICTS measurements.
generation of free carriers
traps are filled with carriers
recombination of free carriers
thermal reemission of trapped carriers
temporally shifted recombination of reemitted carriers
A microwave with about 10 GHz is generated in a frequent stable microwave-generator and split into a reference and measurement part. With an attenuator the power can be adjusted and ranges typically from 1 to 100 MW. The sample is situated just outside the cavity and is part of the measurement system. A special iris in the cavity-wall allows the microwave field to penetrate the sample. Thus, the complex dielectric constant of the sample influences the resonant frequency and the loss properties of the cavity. Microwave absorption by excess charge carriers is detected with an IQ-detector. The sample is placed on an x-y-table, allowing theoretically every sample size and to move the sample in the x-y-plane. For temperature dependent MD-PICTS measurements the sample has to be part of a cryostat system, so that the sample size is currently limited, but apart from that it is principally the same measurement system.
The high detection sensitivity enabled by this technique allows the application even of weak laser pulses with an intensity of µW to mW and with unlimited pulse duration. Hence it is possible to measure in a non- or steady state regime and to continously vary the pulse length from 100 ns to several ms. The resolution of this system is only limited by the diffusion length of the sample.
Besides advantages in speed and sensitivity, a major advantage of MDP is the ability to measure photoconductivity and minority carrier lifetime simultaneously. Accordingly more parameters can be extracted from each measurement, like diffusion length, mobility and even trapping dynamics.