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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
for production and quality control of monocrystalline Si ingots,bricks and wafers
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
High Resolution Resistivity Mapping Tool for process control and quality assurance measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
In silicon laser light with different wavelength has different penetration depth, hence the right laser should be used for different applications, e.g. for epitaxial layers or investigations of the surface smaller wavelength are ideal. An approximation of the penetration depth is given in the diagram here.
The microwave detected photoconductivity measures the photoconductivity after the irradiation of the sample with light. Usually the light should have an energy that is higher than the bandgap, so that electrons and holes are created. For silicon this means that a wavelength smaller than 1100 nm should be used. If the surface should be investigated or thin epitaxial layers, it might be useful to use even UV or blue light, which has a much smaller penetration depth in silicon. Figure 1 shows the penetration depth in silicon versus the wavelength and gives the user a hint, which wavelength is most useful for his application.