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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
High Resolution Resistivity Mapping Tool for process control and quality assurance measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
To gain a better understanding of lifetime measurements and to achieve a better comparability between different measuring methods, it is necessary to perform simulations.
This numerical tool is based on a generalized rate equation system, which is solved for all possible transitions between the defect levels in the forbidden gap and the bands of a semiconductor. The only approximation is, that no interactions between defect levels are included. This is a valid approximation, since the defect density in silicon is typically low.
The applied rate equation system describes the time dependent change of carrier concentrations in the conduction and valence band, as well as in defect levels. In this equation system the optical and thermal generation rates, the band to band and Auger recombination rates and the carrier capture and emission rates from all defects (Cj, Dj, Ej, Fj) are included. The transition rates are described without any approximations.
From the simulated time dependent carrier concentrations the photoconductivity can be calculated using the mobility model of DORKEL and LETURCQ  . The minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the transient of the photoconductivity after Gopt is set to zero.
advantages compared to SRH simulations or PC1D
lifetime is not a parameter, but a direct result
non steady state can be simulated as well
an arbitrary number j of defect levels can be included
The numerical simulation tool is suited for simulation of injection and temperature dependent measurements, for investigating the trapping effect on lifetime and photoconductivity and for the comparison of MDP and µPCD or other measurement conditions. Summarizing, this simulation tool enables to make lifetime measurements more comparable and to achieve a better understanding of the results.
More information about these simulations can be found in:
 T. Hahn, Thesis, TU Bergakademie, 2009
 J. M. Dorkel and P. Leturcq, Solid-State Electronics 24, 821-825 (1981)