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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Contamination monitor, beta-aerosol monitor, dose rate meter and more
for ultra-fast crystal orientation, crystal alignment in production, quality control, rocking curve measurements, material...
state-of-the-art XRD system for automatic single crystal ingot orientation, tilting and alignment for grinding
Wafer sorting, crystal orientation, resistivity, optical notch and flat determination
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
for production and quality control of monocrystalline Si ingots,bricks and wafers
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
for contactless and temperature dependent lifetime and LBIC measurements
High Resolution Resistivity Mapping Tool for process control and quality assurance measurements
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage (SPV) measurement instrument
High sensitivity, high resolution surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) instrument with a variable energy excitation source...
for quality control of bifacial PERC/PERC+ solar cells and more
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
Our quality management system is an integrated process-oriented system with ISO 9001 certification.
for contactless and destruction free temperature dependent measurement of minority carrier lifetime, LBIC and electrical characterization of bulk and interface trap levels of semiconductors
Si | compound semiconductors | oxides | wide bandgap materials | perovskites | epitaxial layers
[ CdTe | HgCdTe | HgCdSe |InP | ZnS | SiC | GaAs | GaN | Ge ]
Sensitivity: highest sensitivity for electrical defect characterizationTemperature range: liquid nitrogen (77 K) up to 500 K. Optional: liquid helium (4 K) or higher temperaturesRange of decay constants: 20 ns to several msContamination determination: measurement of fundamental trap level properties: activation energy and capture cross section of traps, temperature and injection dependent lifetime measurementsRepeatability: > 99%, Measurement time: < 60 minutes. Liquid nitrogen consumption: 2 l/runFlexibility: select from different wavelengths from 365 nm up to 1480 nm for materials of different kindsAccessibility: IP based system allows remote operation and technical support from anywhere in the world
From the slope of the Arrhenius plot (Fig. 3) the activation energy can be determined.
With the novel commercially available MD-PICTS equipment it is possible to measure the temperature dependence of the photoconductivity transient in a range from 20…500 K. In the past Si, GaAs, InP, SiC and many more semiconductors have already been successfully investigated with this method.
Click hereto download the product flyer and technical data.
In order to investigate defects in semiconductors it is widely spread to use temperature dependent methods as deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Usually for these methods it is necessary to form contacts on the samples, which means the sample itself is often altered due to annealing steps. Furthermore for lot of semiconductors some effort is needed to create ohmic contacts at all. MD-PICTS is a non-destructive, contactless method with which the activation energies and capture cross sections of defects can be determined with a high accuracy.
For MD-PICTS measurements the photoconductivity of a sample after the irradiation with light is measured with a resonant microwave cavity. For the determination of the activation energy the temperature dependent change of the photoconductivity transient is determined via a window analysis, which is also used for DLTS measurements (fig. 1).
Fig.2 shows a so called MD-PICTS spectrum which results from the window analysis. Every peak in this spectrum is a certain defect in the sample.
The temperature shift of the maximum of this peak is plotted in an Arrhenius plot according to this formula of the emission rate:
For more information please read:
 B. Berger, N. Schüler, S. Anger, B. Gruendig-Wendrock, J. R. Niklas, K. Dornich, physica status solidi A, 1-8
 C. R. Engst, I. Eisele, and C. Kutter, Defect characterization of unannealed neutron transmutation doped silicon by means of deep temperature microwave detected photo induced current transient spectroscopy, Journal of Applied Physics 127, 035704 (2020)
 C. R. Engst, M. Rommel, C. Bscheid, I. Eisele and C. Kutter, Bulk lifetime characterization of corona charged silicon wafers with high resistivity by means of microwave detected photoconductivity, Journal of Applied Physics 122, 215704 (2017)