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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Free radical measurements in life science and biomedical applications
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
Microwave Detected Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
benchtop PID test for solar wafers and mini-modules
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
For ultra-fast crystal orientation and rocking curve measurements
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
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discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
The microelectronic industry drives present global technological developments. It is one reason for the success of information...
Solar Energy is one of the key elements for the energy revolution that is currently taking place all over the world. In the last...
Research and development is the driving force for the expanding market for semiconductor products in the PV and microelectronic...
The impact of the development of the crystal growth methods on modern technology is often underestimated. We use products...
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for contactless and destruction free temperature dependent measurement of minority carrier lifetime and electrical characterization of bulk and interface trap levels of semiconductors
Sensitivity: highest sensitivity for electrical defect characterizationTemperature range: liquid nitrogen (77 K) up to 500 K. Optional: liquid helium (4 K) or higher temperaturesRange of decay constants: 20 ns to several msContamination determination: measurement of fundamental trap level properties: activation energy and capture cross section of traps, temperature and injection dependent lifetime measurementsRepeatability: > 99.5%, Measurement time: < 60 minutes. Liquid nitrogen consumption: 2 l/runFlexibility: select from different wavelengths from 365 nm up to 1480 nm for materials of different kindsAccessibility: IP based system allows remote operation and technical support from anywhere in the world
From the slope of the Arrhenius plot (Fig. 3) the activation energy can be determined.
With the novel commercially available MD-PICTS equipment it is possible to measure the temperature dependence of the photoconductivity transient in a range from 20…500 K. In the past Si, GaAs, InP, SiC and many more semiconductors have already been successfully investigated with this method.
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In order to investigate defects in semiconductors it is widely spread to use temperature dependent methods as deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Usually for these methods it is necessary to form contacts on the samples, which means the sample itself is often altered due to annealing steps. Furthermore for lot of semiconductors some effort is needed to create ohmic contacts at all. MD-PICTS is a non-destructive, contactless method with which the activation energies and capture cross sections of defects can be determined with a high accuracy.
For MD-PICTS measurements the photoconductivity of a sample after the irradiation with light is measured with a resonant microwave cavity. For the determination of the activation energy the temperature dependent change of the photoconductivity transient is determined via a window analysis, which is also used for DLTS measurements (fig. 1).
Fig.2 shows a so called MD-PICTS spectrum which results from the window analysis. Every peak in this spectrum is a certain defect in the sample.
The temperature shift of the maximum of this peak is plotted in an Arrhenius plot according to this formula of the emission rate:
For more information please read:
 B. Berger, N. Schüler, S. Anger, B. Gruendig-Wendrock, J. R. Niklas, K. Dornich, physica status solidi A, 1-8